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Human Prolactin (PRL: lactogenic hormone) is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland in both men and women. PRL is a single chain polypeptide hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 23 kDa. Normal women have slightly higher basal level of PRL than men; apparently, there is an estrogen-related rise at puberty and a corresponding decrease at menopause. During pregnancy, PRL level increases progressively to 10 and 20 times of normal value, declining to non-pregnant levels by 3-4 weeks post-partum.
The determination of PRL concentration is helpful in diagnosing hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. Microadenomas (small pituitary tumors) may cause hyperprolactinemia, which is sometimes associated with male impotence. High PRL levels are commonly associated with galactorrhea and amenorrhea. PRL concentrations have been shown to be increased by estrogens, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and several drugs affecting dopaminergic mechanism. Also, PRL levels are elevated in renal disease and hypothyroidism, and in some situations of stress, exercise, and hypoglycemia. Additionally, the release of PRL is episodic and demonstrates diurnal variation.